||The English surgeon Cleland, in the 18th century, also recommended a convex glass 3 inches (8 cm) in diameter which could be used to concentrate the beam of a wax candle into the ear canal (Kramer described this as a rude instrument quite inapplicable to practice).
This concept was modified by Bozzini, who placed a concave mirror behind the candle.
Little more was achieved until mineral oil lights became available.
Both Buchanan, an Englishman, and Kramer devised powerful lights which resembled the magic lantern, consisting of a tin box with a blackened interior provided with a strong lamp, a powerful reflector and convex lenses to concentrate the beam of light.
This produced a strong light which, in a darkened room, was thrown into the opening of the meatus.