||No history of otoscopy would be complete without some comment on the use of the ear microscope.
In 1872, Dr de Rossi of the University of Rome claimed to have invented a binocular otoscope which resembled in many ways the Helmholtz ophthalmoscope‑ in a sense, a binocular loop with a very long working distance.
As ear surgery became more precise with the development of the fenestration operation and then stapedectomy, a binocular operating microscope became essential. And although various instruments were adapted, none came into routine use until after the Second World War.
The widespread use of the Zeiss operating microscope, available since approximately 1950, has revolutionized ear surgery and has now had many modifications and many imitations.
It is mentioned because, although introduced for operating room use, its value in the clinic quickly became evident.
Such operating microscopes are now in routine use for outpatient otoscopy in most major centres and many private offices throughout the world.