||By then, specula were being used to examine the tympanic membrane, usually illuminated by allowing sunlight to pass over the examiner's shoulder into the patient's ear.
This type of speculum was open to abuse, with some examiners using it in an attempt to over‑dilate the car canal, a most painful and hazardous procedure.
The disadvantage of the bivalve speculum is that it requires one hand to keep it open and perhaps the second hand to retract the pinna, thereby preventing adequate manipulation within the car.
This pattern of speculum is still used today in operative surgery. It is currently known as the Lempert bivalve speculum.